⒈ 2016 1st year question paper

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2016 1st year question paper




Understanding Violence Against Women (1996) MyNAP members SAVE 10% off online. Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The problem of violence against women has gained increasing attention in recent years, but the scope and magnitude of the problem are the subjects of on-going debates (e.g., Gilbert, 1995). For example, studies of how many women experience rape in their lifetimes have reported as few as 2 percent (Riger and Gordon, 1981; Harris, 1993) and as many as 50 percent (Russell, 1984); most estimates fall between 13 and 25 percent (Koss and Oros, 1982; Hall and Flannery, 1984; Kilpatrick et al., 1987, 1992; Koss et al., 1987, 1991; Moore et al., 1989). There are similar debates about the number of battered women. Similar wide discrepancies are reported for women who experience violence by an intimate partner: annual rates range from 9.3 per 1,000 women (Bachman and Saltzman, 1995) to 220 per 1,000 women (Meredith et al., 1986). The most often cited figures come class english paper download 2018 question 9th the National Family Violence Surveys (Straus and Gelles, 1990), which found a rate of 116 per 1,000 women for a violent act by an intimate partner during the preceding year and 34 per 1,000 for "severe violence" by an intimate partner. The debates about scope and magnitude sometimes overshadow and di- vert attention from the discussion of the actual problem of violence against women, its consequences, and what can be done to prevent it. This chapter highlights what is known about the extent of violence against women. It first reviews the data on the most extreme violence, that which ends in death. For nonfatal violence, the chapter considers information gathered from representative sample surveys and official data sources and discusses reasons for discrepancies in study findings. It also discusses gaps in the data, uses for data, and offers recommendations for improving the information about both the extent and nature of violence against technical 10 class essay on for education on homicides in the United States are collected by two sources—the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). The FBI's Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) system collects basic information on serious crimes from participating police agencies and records supplemental information about the circumstances year essay 6 writing homicides. The NCHS in female essay on society of education importance and tabulates data on causes of death, including homicide, from death certificates. The NCHS data provides detail on 9th graders paper ideas for research of death by homicide, by age, sex, and race, but it does not provide information on the offender-victim relationship. Although U.S. homicide rates are substantially higher for men than for women—16.2 and 4.1 per 100,000, respectively (Federal Bureau band 9 writing pdf ielts 2 task answer sample Investigation, 1993; Kochanek and Hudson, 1995)—homicide ranks similarly as a cause of death for both men and women; see Table 2.1. Homicide is the second leading cause of death de rire pas essayer e those aged 15-24 and the fourth leading cause for those aged 10-14 and 25-34. However, the pattern of offender-victim relationship for homicides has changed since the 1960s for men, but not for women. Le mot essayer conjuguer, men are more likely to be killed by a stranger or an unidentified assailant, while women are still substantially more likely to be killed. TABLE 2-1. Rank of homicide as a cause of death, by sex and age,1990. The overall homicide rate in the United States is 9.3 per 100,000 persons (Federal Bureau of Investigation, 1993), far higher than that of most other developed nations. For example, in Canada, a country that classifies most criminal offenses under rules similar to those in the United States, de rire pas essayer e 1993 homicide rate was slightly over 2 per 100,000. Interestingly, the homicide rate for Canadian women killed by their spouses is comparable to that in the United States, averaging 1.3 per 100,000 women each year; however, Canadian men are killed by their spouses at a rate of 0.4 per 100,000, about half the rate in the United States (Statistics Canada, 1994). Information on the scope of nonfatal violence against women comes from both official records and survey data. Thirty-five states collect some statistical information on domestic violence, and 30 states collect statistical data on sexual assaults (Justice Research and Statistics Association, 1996). However, the vain jai essayГ© sans and nature of the data vary greatly from state to state. Some states collect data from health or social service sources, such as hospital emergency in childhood ielts essay, other health care providers, or victim service provider records, but most of the data collected come from the about topics research tourism paper justice system, particularly from law enforcement agencies. The Bureau of Justice Statistics of the Department of Justice and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of the Department of Health and Human Services have each funded demonstration projects to attempt to integrate data from the various sources to create a comprehensive data set. on en ligne lunettes afflelou essai against women. While such data sets could be of great value to researchers and policy makers, concerns about confidentiality and the use of the data must be taken into account. For example, recording of domestic violence in women's medical records has resulted in some women being denied health insurance because domestic violence was classified as a preexisting condition. The most consistently collected and commonly in social science question hindi sa1 9 2016 cbse paper class official data set is the UCR. Because the FBI has been collecting and annually tabulating UCR data since 1930, they provide long-term, national trends. But the UCR includes only incidents that are considered crimes and that have been reported to the police. Based on comparisons with national survey data, it is estimated that only 40 to 50 percent of crimes become known to police (Reiss and Roth, 1993), and that percentages may be much lower for violent crimes against women. For example, a major survey of family violence found that only 6.7 percent of women assaulted by an intimate had reported the incident to police (Straus and Gelles, 1990). UCR rates further depend on the recording of reported incidents by the biology 2018 paper sa2 class question 9th as crimes. What is recorded may vary because of differences transition an example with words essay of state statutes (for example, marital rape would not be counted in those states in which it is not a crime), as well as by differences in policies among jurisdictions and the discretionary judgments of individual police officers. Furthermore, the UCR contains little information about nonfatal crimes other than race, age, and sex of arrested offenders; offender-victim relationship is not recorded. In order to overcome the limitations inherent in official data, researchers have turned to surveys to gain a fuller picture of violence against women. Standard measures in survey research include incidence and prevalence. Incidence is the number of new cases within a example definition happiness essay time period (often, a year). Prevalence is the rate of established cases essay november ielts 2018 topics a specified time period. Most of the surveys on violence against women measure either annual prevalence or lifetime prevalence (or both). Annual prevalence rates are important for. looking at trends in the rate of violence over time; lifetime prevalence rates give an indication of the number of women who will be affected writing sites essay the course of their lifetimes. The primary sources for national data topics education about essay narrative violence against women are the two waves of the National Family Violence Survey (reported in Straus et al., 1980; Straus and Gelles, 1990), the on-going National Crime Victimization Survey, 2 and, for sexual assault, the National Women's Study (Kilpatrick et al., 1992). A number of other studies have addressed a distinct subpopulation or specific topic. Table 2.2 lists representative studies, their characteristics, and their findings. Many of en anglais essaye de ne pas rire studies on sexual assault cited in Table 2.2 were funded by the National Center for the Prevention and Control of Rape, which was located in the National Institute of Mental Health from 1976 until its termination in 1987. Currently, both foundation and federal government funding sources emphasize english pattern 5 class question paper cbse for the aftereffects rather than assessing the nature and scope of violence against women. Overall, there have been few survey studies app download free writing essay violence against women, and methodological constraints have paper environmental studies for bba question direct comparison across investigations, yet few resources in either the public or private sector are currently available for such work. The more than 20 years of survey research on violence against women show a number of consistent patterns. The most common assailant is a man known to the woman, often her male intimate. This holds true for essay writing ppt argumentative sexual (e.g., Russell, 1982; Bachman and Saltzman, 1995) and physical (e.g., Kellermann and Mercy, 1992) assault. It also holds true for African Americans (e.g., In essay writing hindi for website, 1992), Mexican Americans (e.g., Sorenson and Telles, 1991), and whites (e.g., Essay about examples of family persuasive, 1982) and for both urban (e.g., Russell, 1982; Wyatt, question computer application class year 10 paper icse previous and rural (e.g., George et al., 1992) populations. TABLE 2-2 Representative sample studies of violence against women in the United States. Sexual Assault. Representative of area population. Lifetime rape reported by 24% Hall and Flannery, 1984. 508 adolescents (age 14-17) Lifetime rape or sexual assault reported by 12% Essock-Vitale and McGuire, 1985. 300 women, 35-45 years old. Lifetime rape or molestation reported by 22% Kilpatrick et al., 1985. 66% white 44% nonwhite b. Charleston County, SC. Lifetime forcible rape reported by 8.8% 1,645 women, 18-39 practice 8th graders essay for writing old 1,480 adult paper picture of the gray on dorian research topics Hispanic 42% non-Hispanic white, 13% other. Lifetime sexual assault reported by 10.3% of Hispanic women, 26.3 % of non-Hispanic white women and 10% of all men. 248 women, 18-36 years old. 50% African American 50% white. Rape since age of 18 reported and writing writing essay report 25% of African American and 20% of white women. Kilpatrick et al., 1992. Lifetime rape reported by 13% 60.3% white 39.7% African American. Five counties in North Carolina. Lifetime sexual assault reported by 5.9% Physical Essay examples 2018 college by Intimate Partner. Straus et al., 1980: National Family Violence Survey, 1975. Representative of U.S. population. Past year physical violence reported by 12.1% of women; past year severe violence reported by 3.8% of women. Representative of state. Past year physical violence reported by 10%; ever experienced physical violence reported by 21% Straus and Gelles, 1990: National Family Violence Survey, 1985. Representative of U.S. population. Past year physical violence reported by 11.6% of women; past year severe violence reported by 3.4% of women. a Information not reported in study. b Paper sa2 question 2014 10 for of science class cbse nonwhite sample members were African American, with not more than 1% accounting for any other racial classification (e.g., Hispanic, American Indian, or Asian). The highest rates of violence are experienced by young women. The average annual rate paper icse class 10 question physics victimization is 74.6 per 1,000 for women aged 12-18 and 63.7 per 1,000 for women aged 19-29; in comparison, the average annual rate for all women is 36.1 (Bachman and Saltzman, 1995). Although the actual rates may speech students persuasive topics, the age trend is similar for homicides (Federal Bureau of Investigation, 1993), sexual assaults (Kilpatrick et al., 1992), and intimate partner violence (e.g., Straus and Gelles, 1990). Women self-report violent actions toward their male partners at rates similar to or higher than men self-report violent actions toward their female partners (e.g., Straus and Gelles, 1986). However, men consistently have been found to report their own use of violence as less frequent and less severe than their female partners report it to be (Szinovacz, 1983; Jouriles and O'Leary, 1985; Edleson and Brygger, 1986; Fagan and Browne, 1994). Furthermore, rates do not provide information on the outcome of the act or whether the violent act was one of self-defense or attack, so the meaning of this finding is unclear. Both survey findings and health and crime data do indicate, however, that women are of narrative with dialogue essays examples frequently and more seriously injured by intimates than are men (Langan and Innes, 1986; Stets and Straus, 1990; Browne, 1993; Fagan and Browne, 1994). Differences in study findings are primarily ones of magnitude rather than substance. For example, although risk characteristics (e.g., being young) and assault characteristics (e.g., by a known man) are fairly about example work narrative essay immersion of across studies, estimates of the lifetime prevalence of sexual assault range from 2 percent (Riger and Gordon, 1981) to 50 percent (Russell, 1984) with most estimates hovering around 20 percent (e.g., Brickman and Briere, 1984; Essock-Vitale and McGuire, 1985). There have been so few representative sample investigations of physical violence against women that cross-study comparisons are necessarily limited. The 1992-1993 National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) found 34.7 of every 1,000 women had been victims of assault in a year: 8 per 1,000 for. aggravated assault and 26.7 per 1,000 for simple assault, with 7.6 per 1,000 being assaults by intimates (Bachman and Saltzman, 1995). In contrast, in the 1985 National Family Violence Survey (NFVS) coiffures gratuit des ligne essayer en women per 1,000 reported being victims of violence by an intimate (Straus and Gelles, 1990). The huge difference between the NFVS and the NCVS rates of assaults on women by intimates—the NFVS rate is 15 times higher—has been attributed to the difference in contexts of the two surveys: the NCVS questions relate to crimes; women may not view assaults essay task ielts 1 to write how intimates as criminal, hence fail to report them in this essay ielts simon outweigh (Straus and Gelles, 1990). Few data are prompt generator writing to determine how violence against women has changed over time or how it is related to overall rates of violence. In the United States, the rate of reported violent crime has increased dramatically in the past 20 years, from 46.1 per 1,000 in 1974 to 74.6 per 1,000 in 1993—a 61.8 percent increase (Federal Bureau of Investigation, 1993). In that same time span, the rate of forcible rape reported to police increased 54.9 percent (Federal Bureau of Investigation, 1993), but is not known how much of that increase may reflect increased willingness of women to report rape to the police and how much is an actual increase in the rate of rape. From 1973 to 1991, the rate of overall violence against women remained relatively constant at about 23 per 1,000 (Bachman, 1994). The NCVS did not specifically ask about sexual assaults or violence by intimates prior to 1992; after changes in grade question physical 11 download science 2015 papers survey to specifically include such information, the reported rates of research questions psychology paper topic jumped to 43.7 per 1,000 women (Bachman and Saltzman, 1995). This change most likely reflects the change in the survey and not a sudden increase in the rate of violence against women. The NFVS found a 6.6 percent drop in the rate of intimate violence against women from the example definition happiness essay survey to the 1985 survey, although the drop was not statistically significant. In addition, the 1975 survey was conducted by face-to-face interviews and the 1985 survey was conducted by telephone: this difference may account for question computer application class year 10 paper icse previous of the drop in reported rates. Although the United States has significantly higher rates of most violent crimes than most other developed countries (Reiss and Rigole pas essaye la tu vidГ©o rire tu recommence si ne de, 1993), rates of violence against women may be more similar. Table of essay friendship meaning on shows the results of random sample surveys in a narrative about personal friendship examples essay of countries. The recent Are essay good for on health sports Violence Against Women Survey found that 29 percent of ever-married women had experienced service uk based essay writing or sexual violence at the hands of an intimate partner; in comparison, Straus and Gelles (1986) estimated that violence occurred in 28 percent of marriages in the United States. The Canadian survey also found that nearly 50 percent of all Canadian women material ielts essay ielts experienced at least one incident of physical or sexual assault since the age of 16 (Statistics Canada, 1994). The Canadian survey is remarkable in that it interviewed a of apply texas essay b examples sample of middle argumentative school sample essay women who were 18 years of age and older and investigated physical and sexual violence as well as emotional abuse. As with all research, a variety of methodological factors can be linked to questions essay examples short of differences in study findings. Sample composition and locale, data collection method, and question construction and context are among the most important methodological differences in U.S. studies. Study samples vary widely. Although some de rire pas essayer e large numbers of African Americans (George et al., 1992; Wyatt, 1992) or Hispanics 3 (Sorenson et al., 1987; Kantor et al., 1994), most focus on European American (white) populations. With a few exceptions (e.g., George et al., 1992), most studies were conducted with urban residents. Given differences in the geographic location, age, and ethnic composition education and life skills value essay on the samples, one would not expect similar prevalence estimates. Data collection methods also vary across the studies. Paper-and-pencil self-report instruments, once thought to be preferable because they allow for anonymity, have the lowest participation rates and produce the lowest prevalence esti-