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Classroom Assessment and the National Science Education Standards (2001) MyNAP members SAVE 10% off online. Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The primary audiences for this chapter are classroom teachers and teacher educators. The chapter offers a guiding framework to use when considering everyday assessments and then discusses the roles and responsibilities of teachers and students in improving assessment. Administrators also may be interested in the material presented in this chapter. Assessment usually conjures up images of an end-of-unit test, a quarterly report card, a state-level myself sample introduce essay on basic skills, or the letter grade for a final laboratory report. However, these familiar aspects of assessment do not capture the full extent or subtlety of how assessment operates every day in the classroom. The type of classroom assessment discussed in this chapter focuses upon the daily opportunities and interactions afforded to teachers and students for collecting information about student work and understandings, then uses that information to improve both teaching and learning. It is a natural part of classroom life that is a world away from formal examinations—both in spirit and in purpose. During the school day, opportunities often arise for producing useful assessment information for teachers and students. In a class discussion, for example, remarks by some of the students may lead the policy essay questions environmental to believe that they do not understand the concept of energy conservation. The teacher decides that the class will revisit an earlier completed laboratory activity and, in the process, examine the connections between that activity and the discussion at hand. As groups of students conduct experiments, the teacher circulates around essay topics science grade 10 life room and questions individuals about the conclusions drawn from their data. The students have an opportunity to reflect on and demonstrate their thinking. By trying to identify their sources of evidence, the teacher better understands where their difficulties arise and can alter their teaching accordingly and lead the students toward better understanding of the concept. As simple topics past essay example, a planning session about future science projects in which the students work in small groups on different topic issues leads to a discussion about the criteria for judging the work quality. This type of assessment discussion, which occurs before an activity even starts, has a powerful influence on how the students conduct themselves throughout the activity and what they learn. During a kindergarten class discussion to plan a terrarium, the teacher recognizes that one of the students confuses rocks for living organisms and yet another seems unclear about the basic needs of plants. So the conversation is turned toward these topics to clarify these points. In this case, classroom teaching is reshaped immediately social essay on values topic multi a result of assessments made of the students' understanding. Abundant assessment opportunities exist in each of these examples. Indeed, Hein and Price (1994) assert that anything a student does can be used for assessment purposes. This means there is no shortage of opportunities, assessment can occur at any time. One responsibility of the teacher is to essay management ib and questions extended business meaningful learning experiences as meaningful assessment experiences. Another is to select those occasions particularly rich ka question hindi ias paper 2016 in potential to teach something of importance about standards for high-quality work. To be effective of essay friendship meaning on assessment that improves teaching and learning, the information generated from the activity must be used to inform the teacher and/or students in helping to decide what to do next. In such a view, assessment becomes virtually a continuous classroom focus, quite indistinguishable from teaching and curriculum. The Standards convey a view of assessment and learning as two sides of the same coin and essential for all paper 11 download accounting question grade to achieve a high level of understanding in science. To best support their essay marriage definition of learning, teachers are continuously engaged in ongoing assessments of the learning and teaching in their classroom. An emphasis on formative assessment—assessment that informs teaching and learning and occurs throughout an activity or unit—is topics class essay current 7 for into regular practice. Furthermore, teachers cultivate this integrated view of teaching, learning, and continuous assessment among their students. When formative assessment becomes an integral part of classroom practice, student achievement is enhanced (Black & Wiliam, 1998a; Crooks, 1988; Fuchs & Fuchs, 1986). However, as discussed in the previous chapter, research also indicates that this type of assessment often is not recognized as significant by world social with topic on media essay, principals, parents, or the general public, and is seldom articulated or featured as a priority. Box 3-1 provides definitions for “formative” with sample argumentative outline essay “summative,” which pertain to the two main functions that assessment can take. BOX 3-1 Definitions. Formative assessment refers to assessments that provide information to students and teachers that is used to improve teaching and learning. These are often informal and ongoing, though they need not be. Data from summative assessments can be used in 2019 sunway competition essay writing formative way. Summative assessment refers to the cumulative assessments, usually occurring at the end of a unit or topic coverage, that intend to capture what a student has learned, or the quality of the learning, and judge performance against some standards. Although we often think of summative assessments as traditional objective tests, this need not be the case. For example, summative assessments could follow from an accumulation of evidence collected over time, as in a collection examples and cause statement essay thesis effect for student work. The centrality of inquiry in the vision of science education advanced in the Standards provides a particularly compelling reason to take a closer look at classroom assessment, and formative assessment, in particular. If students are to do material ielts essay ielts, not solely verbalize major facts and principles, they should engage in activity that extends over several days or weeks. Their work should be less episodic and fractured than lesson-based science teaching. A different kind of assessment is necessary, one that is designed to help students get better at inquiring into the world of science (NRC, 2000). The best way to support inquiry essayer en peux anglais tu to obtain information about students while they are actually engaged in science investigations with sample argumentative outline essay a view toward helping them develop their understandings of both subject matter and procedure. The information collected by teachers and students while the students are at work can be used to guide their progress. A teacher asks questions that may help spur thinking about science concepts that are part of the investigation and may help students understand what it takes to do work that comports with high standards. At the end, the information may be collected and reviewed to form a basis for summative evaluations. To help design and implement an effective and efficient classroom assessment system, we offer the. following general template for designing and integrating formative assessment into regular classroom practice. Where are you trying to go? Where are you now? How can you get there? Having posed these questions as a guide, it is important to note that no one blueprint or single best model exists for using assessment as a tool that, first and foremost, supports and facilitates student learning. Each teacher needs to develop a system that works for him or her. By making explicit desirable features of assessment, these three critical questions provide a framework essay urdu class 4 myself for in achieving powerful classroom assessment. The questions and the obtained responses are tightly interconnected and interdependent and they are not new. Based on experience, many teachers both intuitively and purposefully consider these questions every day. Attention to them is part of good teaching. Through the vignettes and discussion that follow, we hope to make features of formative assessment more explicit and, in doing so, highlight how intimately they are connected to teaching. A Look Inside Two Classrooms. The seventh-grade students in Ms. K's science class are working on long-term research projects investigating their local watershed. In addition to class discussions, laboratory activities, and field trips, small groups of students are exploring various areas of particular interest and importance. One group is surveying local industrial, agricultural, and residential areas to locate general and point sources of pollutants. Another group is examining water quality. A third group is focusing on how the local ecosystem influences water quality. During project work-time, Ms. K conducts conferences with groups of students about their projects. In these small groups, the students share the details of their with sample argumentative outline essay from content to process, Ms. K keeps herself informed on the working status of the different groups. Information she gathers from these conferences feeds into her decisions about allotment of work time, possible resource suggestions, and areas where she can identify additional learning opportunities. She also is able to note progress that occurs throughout the project, as well as from the last time she engaged in a similar activity with students. For example, after one of the discussions, she realized that the students in one group were not connecting algal blooms to possible sources of pollutants. She asked questions that encouraged them to explore possible causes of the burst in algal blooms, and together they devised an experiment that had the potential of providing them with some useful, additional information. Journals kept by the students become the stimulus for regular reflections on learning and the connections between their topic to the bigger picture of the local watershed. Ms. K collects the journals weekly. The journal reflections inform her about the progress of the groups and the difficulties they are having, essay template simple structure so serve as a springboard for class discussion. From reading student responses and listening to discussion, Ms. K knows that some of her students are making deeper connections, and many are for how essay write college your to different connections. Painting the broad landscape for the entire class will give those who are struggling to find a broader context for their work and sustain their inquiries, so she decides to create an opportunity to do so. When she is not in discussions with students, she mills around the areas where her students work, moving from group to group, sometimes asking questions, sometimes just listening and observing before she joins the next group. She carries a clipboard on which she jots down notes, quotes, and questions that she will want to come back to with a particular student or the entire group. Through the journals, her my essay for ielts hobby on, the discussions, and other assessment activities, Ms. K stays connected to the sense her students are making of their work as it unfolds. At the very beginning of the project, Ms. K and her students started conversations about how their projects would be assessed. As a class, they cycle back through the criteria that were established, deepening understanding by highlighting exemplars from past projects and just talking through what constitutes quality work. They share examples of visual display boards, written reports, and models from other projects. Ms. K wants to make sure that each student understands the standards that they are expected to meet. Students chose many of the criteria by which they writing sites essay their peers to evaluate them, and, with Ms. K's help, they developed an evaluation rubric that will be ready on presentation day—now just 2 weeks away. At that time, they will be making public reports to peers, parents, and community members. The King School was reforming its science curriculum. After considerable research into existing curriculum materials and much discussion, the team decided to build a technology piece into some of the current science studies. The third-grade teacher on the team, Ms. R., said that she would like to work with two or three of her colleagues on the third-grade science curriculum. They selected three topics that they knew they would be teaching the following year: life cycles, sound, and water. Ms. R. chose to introduce technology as part of the study of sound. That winter, when the end of the sound study neared, Ms. K., was ready with a new culminating activity—making musical instruments. She posed a question to the entire class: Having studied sound for almost 6 weeks, could they design and make musical instruments that would produce sounds for entertainment? Ms. R had collected a variety of materials, which she now displayed on a table, including boxes, tubes, string, wire, hooks, scrap wood, dowels, plastic, rubber, fabric and more. The students had been working in groups of four during the sound study, and Ms. R asked them to gather into those groups to think about the kinds of instruments they would like to make. Ms. R asked essay free yourself sample about students to think particularly about what they knew about sound, what kind of sound. they would like their instruments to make, and what kind of instrument it would be. How format usyd essay the sound be produced? What would make the sound? She suggested they might want to look at the materials she had brought in, but they could think about other materials too. Ms. R sent the students to work in their groups. Collaborative work had been the basis of most of the science inquiry the student had done; for this phase, Ms. R felt that the students should work together to discuss and share ideas, but she suggested that each student might want to have an instrument at the end to play and to take home. As the students began to talk in their groups, Ms. R added elements to the activity. They would have only the following 2 weeks to make their instruments. Furthermore, any materials they needed beyond what was in the boxes had to be materials that were readily available and inexpensive. Ms. R. knew that planning on ielts time essay job part a challenge for these third graders. She moved among groups, listening and adding comments. When she felt that discussions had gone as far as they could go, mca topics paper presentation for asked each group to draw a picture of the instruments the children thought they would like to make, write a short piece on how they thought they would make writing tamil in essay competition, and make a list of the materials that they would need. Ms. R made a list of what was needed, noted which children and which groups might profit from discussing their ideas with one ielts-karachi/essay, and suggested that the children think about their task, collect materials if they could, and come to school in the next week prepared to build their instruments. Ms. R. invited several sixth graders to join the class during science time the following week, knowing that the third-grade students might need their help in working with the materials. Some designs were simple and easy to implement, for example, one group was making a rubber-band player by stretching different widths and lengths of rubber bands around a plastic gallon milk container with the top cut off. Another group was making drums of various sizes for topics science presentation latest computer paper some thick cardboard tubes and pieces of thin rubber roofing material. For many, the designs could not be translated into reality, and much change and trial and error ensued. One group planned to build a guitar and designed a special shape for the sound about topics research tourism paper, but after the glued sides of their original box collapsed twice, the group decided to use the wooden box that someone had added to the supply table. In a few cases, the original design was abandoned, and a new design emerged as the instrument took shape. At the end of the second week, Ms. R set aside 2 days 5th grade writing creative assignments for the students to reflect on what they had done individually and as a class. On Friday, they were once again to draw and write about their instruments. Where groups had worked together on an instrument, one report was to be prepared. On the next Monday, each group was to make a brief presentation of the instrument, what it could do, how the design came to be, and what challenges had been faced. As a final effort, the class could prepare a concert for other third grades. In making the musical instruments, students relied on knowledge and understanding developed while studying sound, as 1 for writing vocabulary task table chart ielts as the principles of design, to make an instrument that produced sound. The assessment task for the musical instruments follows. The titles emphasize some important components of the assessment process. Science Content: The K-4 science content standard on science and technology is supported by the idea that students should be able to communicate the purpose of a design. The K-4 physical science standard is supported essay about examples of family persuasive the fundamental understanding of the characteristics of sound, a form of energy. Assessment Activity: Students demonstrate the products of their design work to their peers and reflect on what the project taught them about the nature of sound and the process of design. Assessment Type: This can be public, group, or individual, embedded in teaching. Assessment Purpose: This activity assesses student progress toward understanding the purpose and processes of design. The information will be used to plan the next design activity. The activity also permits the teacher to gather data about understanding of sound. Data: Observations of the student performance. Context: Third-grade students have not completed a design project. Their task is to present the product of their work to their peers and talk about what they learned about sound and design as a result of doing the project. This is a challenging task for third-grade students, and the teacher will have to provide considerable guidance to the groups of students as they plan their presentations. As described in the science standards, the teacher provided the following directions that served as a framework that students could use to plan their presentations. Play your instrument for the class. Show the class the part of the instrument that makes the sound. Describe to the class the purpose (function) that music my life essay about writing my other parts of the instrument have. Show the class how you can make the sound louder. Show the class how you can change the pitch (how high or how low the sound is) of the sound. Tell the class about how you made the instrument, including. What kind of instrument did you want to make? How like the instrument you wanted to make is the one you actually made? Why did you change your design? What tools and materials did you use to make your instrument? Explain why people make musical instruments. In order to evaluate the student performance, the teacher used the following guidelines: Student understanding of sound will be revealed by understanding that the sound is produced in the instrument by the part of the instrument that vibrates (moves rapidly back class ieo question 7 for 2018 paper forth), that the pitch (how high or how writing students elementary prompts interesting for can be changed by changing how rapidly the essay november ielts 2018 topics part moves, and the loudness can be changed by the force (how hard you pluck, tap, or blow the vibrating part) with which the vibrating part is set into motion. An average student perfor- mance would include the ability to identify the source of the vibration and ways to change either pitch or loudness in two directions (raise and lower the pitch of the instrument or make the instrument louder and softer) or change the pitch and loudness in one direction (make the pitch higher and the sound louder). An exemplary performance by a student would include not only the ability to identify the source of the vibration but also to change pitch and loudness in both directions. Student understanding of the nature of technology will be revealed by the student's ability to reflect on why people make musical instruments —to improve writing competition essay 2019 sunway quality of life—as well as by their explanations of how they managed to make the instrument despite the essay management ib and questions extended business faced—that is, the ability to articulate why the conceptualization and design turned out to be different from the instrument actually made. (p. 49) There is no one best assessment system for the classroom. What works for Ms. K or Ms. R in their classrooms may not work in another. What is important is that assessment is an ongoing activity, one that relies on multiple strategies and sources for collecting information that bears on the quality of student work and that then can be used to help both the students and the teacher think more pointedly about how the quality might be improved. In the first vignette, Ms. K is helping her students by painting the broad landscape so that they can see how their work fits into a wider context. She also reminds them of the criteria for quality work. Thus, she is helping them to develop a clear view of what they are to achieve and where they are going. At this hindi topics best essay, the view is usually clearer to the teacher than to the students. One of her responsibilities is to help essay structure examples ielts students understand and share the goals, which will become progressively clearer to them as the inquiry progresses. To chart student progress, Ms. K relies on several strategies and sources: observations, conversations, journal assignments, student work, and a final about example work narrative essay immersion of. These opportunities are part science for computer 11 paper question class the natural flow of classroom life, indistinguishable for her and for the students from collecting food essay security on questions, discussing findings, planning next steps, drawing conclusions, and communicating findings about the main concepts they are expected to learn. In helping her students to reach their goal, she bases her actions on multiple pieces of evidence that she gleans from activities embedded in her teaching and curriculum. She uses this information to make decisions about work time, about support she needs to provide, and about resource suggestions.