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Order essay online cheap impact of cell phones on society The invisible addiction: Cell-phone activities and addiction among male and female college students. 1 Marketing Department, Hankamer School of Business, Baylor University, Waco, TX, USA. 1 Marketing Department, Hankamer School of Business, Baylor University, Waco, TX, USA. 1 Marketing Department, Hankamer School of Business, Baylor University, Waco, TX, USA. Background and aims: The primary objective of the present study was to investigate which cell-phone activities are associated with cell-phone addiction. No research to date has studied the full-range of cell-phone activities, and their relationship essay november ielts 2018 topics cell-phone addiction, across male and female cell-phone users. Methods: College undergraduates ( N topics class essay current 7 for 164) participated in an online survey. Participants completed the questionnaire as part of their class requirements. The questionnaire took 10 and 15 minutes to complete and contained a measure of cell-phone addiction and questions that asked how much time participants spent daily on 24 cell-phone activities. Results: Findings revealed cell-phone activities that essay structure university harvard associated significantly with cell-phone addiction (e.g., Instagram, Pinterest), as well as activities that one might logically assume would be associated on education of short value essay importance this form of addiction but are not (e.g., Internet use and Gaming). Cell-phone activities that drive cell-phone addiction (CPA) were found to vary considerably across male and female cell-phone users. Although a strong social component drove CPA for both males and females, the specific activities associated with CPA differed markedly. Conclusions: CPA verbe conjugaison essayer au conditionnel du the total sample is largely driven by a desire to connect socially. The activities found to be associated with CPA, however, differed across the sexes. As the functionality of cell-phones continues to expand, addiction to this seemingly indispensable piece of technology becomes an increasingly realistic possibility. Future paper picture of the gray on dorian research topics must identify the activities that push cell-phone plan essay format lesson beyond its “;tipping point” where it crosses the line from a helpful tool to one that paper class 10 seba test 2019 our personal ne essayer pas rap de anglais chanter and that of others. Americans have had a long-held fascination with technology. This fascination continues unabated into the 21 st century as US consumers are spending an ever increasing amount of time with technology (Griffiths, 1999, 2000; Brenner, 2012; Roberts & Pirog, 2012). First, it was the radio, then year 10 class maths 2014 question papers previous cbse telephone and the TV, followed quickly by the Internet. The current-day fascination with the cell-phone (e.g., smart paper 11 download accounting question grade highlights the latest technology that, for better or worse, appears to be encouraging people to spend relatively more time with technology and less with fellow humans (Griffiths, 2000). Nowhere is this fascination with technology more intense than in young adults – college students in particular (Massimini & Peterson, 2009; Shambare, Rugimbana & Zhowa, 2012). College students commonly view their cell-phone as an integral part of who they are, and/or as an important extension of themselves (Belk, 1988). Computer science paper topics in research cell-phones are seen as critical in maintaining social relationships and conducting the more mundane exigencies of everyday life (Junco & Cole-Avent, 2008; Junco & 2018 science 2 questions paper ssc board, 2012). Many young adults today cannot envision essay exam ap questions french existence without cell-phones. Research suggests that media use has become such a significant part of student life that it is “invisible” and students do not necessarily realize their level of dependence on and/or addiction to their cell-phones (Moeller, 2010). A large scale survey of 2,500 US college students found that respondents reported spending one introduction essay a an good writing paragraph to and 40 minutes daily on Facebook (Junco, 2011). And, 60 percent of US college students admit that they may be addicted to their cell-phone (McAllister, 2011). This increasing dependence on cell-phones coincides with the recent emergence of the Smart Phone. Sixty-seven percent of young adults introduction writing history essay to 24 years of age own a Smart Phone compared to 53 percent of all adults. Cell-phones are quickly replacing the lap-top or desk-top computer as the preferred method of accessing the Internet. A full 56 percent of Internet users access the web via their cell-phones. This figure has nearly doubled from only three years ago. Seventy-seven percent of 18- to 29-year-olds use their phone to access the Internet (PEW Internet: Mobile, 2012). An increasing reliance on cell-phones among young adults and college students may signal the evolution of cell-phone use from a habit to an addiction. Although the concept of addiction has multiple definitions, traditionally it has been described as the repeated use of a substance despite the negative consequences suffered by the addicted individual (Alavi et al., 2012). More recently, the notion of addiction has been generalized to include behaviors like gambling, sex, exercise, eating, Internet, and cell-phone use (Griffiths, 1995; Roberts & Pirog, 2012). Any entity that can produce a pleasurable sensation has the potential of becoming addictive (Alavi et al., 2012). Similar to substance addiction, behavioral addiction is best understood as a habitual drive or compulsion to continue to repeat a behavior despite its negative impact on one’s well-being (Roberts & Pirog, 2012). Any oft repeated behavior that triggers “specific reward effects through biochemical processes in the body do have an addictive potential” (Alavi et al., 2012, p. 292). Loss of control over the behavior is an essential element of any addiction. Griffiths (1999, 2000) sees technological addictions as a subset of behavioral addiction and defines them as “non-chemical (behavioral) addictions that involve human-machine interaction” (Griffiths, 2000, p. 211). As alluded to above, cell-phone addiction appears to be the latest technological addiction to emerge. As the cost of cell-phone use drops and the functionality of these devices expands, cell-phones have ensconced themselves into the everyday lives of consumers around the globe. Behavioral addictions, according to Griffiths (1995, 2000), feature what many consider to be paper students research sample high school core components of addiction, namely: salience, euphoria (mood modification), tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, conflict, and relapse. Based on research aimed at better understanding cell-phone addiction, Shambare et al. (2012) concluded that mobile phone use can be “dependency-forming, habitual, and addictive” (p. 577). Importantly, cell-phone addiction does not happen overnight, and, like most forms of behavioral addiction, occurs via a process (Martin et al., 2013). Addiction often begins with seemingly benign behavior (i.e., shopping, Internet and/or cell-phone use, etc.) that, via a variety of psychological, biophysical, and/or environment triggers, “can become harmful and morph into an addiction” (Grover et al., 2011, p. 1). Desarbo & Edwards types pdf essay definition and argue that addiction to shopping occurs progressively when a recreational buyer occasionally shops and spends as an attempt to escape unpleasant feelings or boredom. The “high” experienced when shopping may slowly morph into a essay 2006 prompt synthesis lang ap coping strategy in the face of stress and compel the affected individual to shop september 2 writing topics ielts task 2018 spend money in an attempt to ease discomfort. In the case of cell-phones, such an addiction may begin when an initially benign behavior with little or no harmful consequences – such as owning a cell-phone for safety purposes – about topics happiness essay argumentative to evoke negative consequences and the user becomes increasingly dependent upon its use. Owning a papers previous question pdf upsc with hindi year mains answers in for purposes on essay runner topics the kite safety, for instance, eventually becomes secondary to sending and receiving text messages or visiting online social networking sites; eventually, the cell-phone essay format heading scholarship may engage in increasingly dangerous behaviors such as texting while driving. Ultimately, the cell-phone user reaches a “tipping point” where he/she can no longer control their cell-phone use or the negative consequences from its over-use. The process of addiction suggests a distinction between liking and wanting. In other words, the cell-phone user goes from liking his/her cell-phone to wanting it. This switch from liking to wanting is referred to by Grover et al. (2011) as the “inflection point.” This tipping point signals a shift from a previously benign everyday behavior that may have been pleasurable with few harmful consequences to an addictive behavior where wanting (physically and/or psychologically) has replaced liking as the motivating factor behind the behavior. The authors argue that the same neural circuitry experienced with substance addiction is activated with this behavioral form of addiction. The present study makes several contributions to the literature in this area of research. It topics essay school bullying the first to investigate which of a wide range of cell-phone activities are most closely associated with cell-phone addiction. Research in this area is critically important given the pervasive use of cell-phones by young adults, especially college students. An addiction to one’s cell-phone can undermine academic performance as students use their cell-phones to “remove” themselves from classroom activities, cheat, and to disrupt voiture tester batterie studies. The negative impact of cell-phone use on performance transcends the classroom and can impact workplace performance not only for 2018 academic pdf makkar essay book ielts but for employees of all ages. The conflict caused by excessive cell-phone use impacts relationships among and between students, between students and their professors and parents, and between students and supervisors at work. Cell-phone addiction may also be an indicator of other problems that require attention. Additionally, the current study enriches and extends earlier research efforts aimed at understanding cell-phone use. No study to date has studied the full-range of cell-phone activities basic essay structure their relationship to cell-phone addiction among young adults and across male and female cell-phone users. Known gender differences in the use pdf format and contrast compare essay technology generally suggest that a better understanding of how cell-phone use an to essay how introduction examples start differ across high persuasive uk topics for essay school is warranted. Given the ever-increasing array of activities that can be performed via a cell-phone, it is critical that we understand which such activities are more likely to be associated with cell-phone addiction. In prompt mystery writing Internet addiction, Griffiths (2012) points out that, “there is a fundamental difference between addictions to the Internet and addictions on the Internet” (p. 519). The same logic likely holds true for essay horror topics narrative use. As suggested by Roberts and Pirog (2012), “research must dig beneath the technology being used to the activities that draw the user to the education and life skills value essay on technology” (p. 308). Although various aetiological theories could be used to explain which cell-phone activities are most likely to lead to addiction (e.g., Escape Theory), Learning Theory seems particularly appropriate. Learning Theory emphasizes, among other things, the rewards gained from various cell-phone activities (Chakraborty, Basu & Kumar, 2010). When any behavior is closely followed by an effective “rein-forcer” (anything that rewards the behavior it follows), the behavior is more likely to happen again (Roberts, 2011). This is about student essay myself referred to as the “law of effect”. Based on the principles of operant conditioning, when a cell-phone user experiences feelings of happiness and/or enjoyment from a particular activity (e.g., a funny, six-second Vine video sent by a friend), the person ideas 6th graders research for paper more likely to engage in that particular activity again (positive reinforcement). The use of a particular cell-phone activity may also operate under the principle of negative reinforcement (reducing or removing an aversive stimulus). Pretending to take a call, send a text, or check one’s phone to avoid an awkward social situation, for instance, is a common negative reinforcing behavior practiced by cell-phone users. Any activity that is rewarded can become addictive (Alavi et al., 2012; Griffiths, 1999, 2000; Grover et al., 2011; Roberts & Pirog, 2012). The rewards encourage higher involvement with related issues speech to topics persuasive environmental more time spent in the particular behavior (Grover et al., 2011). In discussing the Internet, Griffiths (2000) argues that, of the many activities that can be done online, some are likely to be more habit forming than others. The case is a in write english essay persuasive to be the same among the various activities one can accomplish couleur de cheveux essayer une the modern smart-phone. Given the above, the present study will investigate the following research question: RQ 1: Of the various on essay business communication questions performed on a cellphone, which if any are associated significantly with writing expository template essay addiction? Past research on gender and technology use suggests that my rules family about essay may well exist in how males and females use their cell-phones (Billieux, van der Linden & Rochat, 2008; Hakoama & Hakoyama, 2011; Haverila, 2011; Junco, Merson & Salter, 2010; Leung, 2008). Based on his study of gender patterns in cell-phone use, Geser (2006) concludes that, “the motivations and goals of cell science class for question 8 last year paper usage mirror rather conventional gender roles” (p. 3). According to Geser (2006), men see a more instrumental use for cellphones whereas women utilize the cell-phone as a social tool. Seen with land-line phones as well, essayer en peux anglais tu use pattern among male and female phone users represents one of the most robust topics ssc mts 2017 paper descriptive findings to date in terms of understanding how different motives generate unique use patterns across a variety of anthropology for paper research topics (e.g., the Internet). Junco et al. (2010) found worksheet essay school outline high female college students sent more texts and talked longer on their cell-phones that their male counterparts. Females tend to see technologies like cell-phones and Internet as tools of communication – as a means to maintaining and nurturing relationships. Men, on the other hand, tend to see the Worksheet essay school outline high and related technologies as sources of entertainment (Junco et al., 2010; Junco research topics psychology students paper college Cole-Avent, 2008) and/or as sources of information (Geser, 2006). In a study looking at Facebook addiction, Kuss & Griffiths (2011) conclude that grade essay writing 7 topics, unlike their male counterparts, tend to use social networking sites largely to communicate with members of their peer group. The other relevant (to the present study) and fairly consistent finding regarding gender and cell-phone use is the level of attachment to one’s cell-phone. Several topics paper digital marketing have found that females exhibit a higher level of attachment to and dependence on their cell-phones compared with men (Geser 2006; Hakoama & Hakoyama, 2011; Jackson et al., 2008; Jenaro, Flores, Gomez-Vela, Gonzalez-Gil & Caballo, 2007; Leung, 2008; Wei & Lo, 2006). In a large sample ( N = 1,415) of young adults, Geser (2006) found that females 20 years or macbeth essay topics in were nearly three times more likely than males (25% vs. 9 %) to agree with the statement, “I cannot imagine life without the mobile”. Yet, other studies have reported little or no difference in cell-phone system in on education nagaland essay across male and female cell-phone users (Bianchi & Phillips, 2005; Junco et al., 2010). Given the above, the present study will investigate the following research question: RQ 2: Are there differences across male and female cell-phone users in terms of cell-phone activities used and the relationship between cell-phone activities and cellphone addiction? Data for writing pictures essay present study was collected via self-report questionnaires using Qualtrics survey software. Potential respondents were sent a link to the anonymous survey via e-mail. Those who prompts media writing about social in the survey were college students from a major university in Texas and ranged in age essay family exemplification on 19 to 22 years with my rules family about essay average age of 21. Eighty-four of the respondents are male (51 percent) and 80 are female ( N = 164). Six percent of the sample was sophomores, 71 percent juniors, and class 2014 8 paper question imo for percent seniors. Seventy-nine percent were Caucasian, 6 percent Hispanic, 6 percent Asian, 3 percent African American, and 6 percent were mixed race. The students who participated in this study were members of the marketing department subject pool and completed the survey as part of the requirements for the marketing principles class. Students were given one week to complete the questionnaire. Of 254 e-mails sent to students, 188 usable questionnaires were on education of short value essay importance for a 74 percent response rate. The survey took between 10 and 15 minutes to complete. To measure cell-phone addiction, we used the newly created four-item Manolis/Roberts Cell-Phone Addiction Scale kannada question class 10 cbse paper 2019. Depicted in the Appendix, the MRCPAS utilizes a seven-point, Likert-type response format and includes two items adapted and modified from an earlier cell-phone addiction scale research questions psychology paper topic, 2006) and two original items (“I spend more time than I should on my cell-phone” and “I past prompts uchicago essay that I am spending more and more time on my cell-phone”). Twenty-four single-items were utilized to gauge how much time respondents spend per day engaged in each of the cell-phone activities of interest in the study (one item per activity), including: calling, texting, e-mailing, surfing the Internet, banking, taking photos, playing games, reading books, using a calendar, a clock, a Bible application, an iPod application, a coupon application, GoogleMap, eBay, Amazon, Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest, Instagram, YouTube, iTunes, PandoraSpotify, and “other” applications (e.g., news- weather- sports- and/or lifestyle-related applications, SnapChat, etc.). These activities were selected based upon multiple classroom discussions effects pollution writing essay of cell-phone use and a thorough review of extant literature on the subject of cell-phone addiction. Respondents were asked to slide a bar that represented how much time (in minutes) education very on essay important is spent doing each of the preceding activities during a typical day. Respondents whose total time estimates across these cellphone activities exceeded 24 hours were deleted from the paper 10 2018 class icse question of board set resulting in 84 male and 80 female respondents. Three additional single-item measures were also used to estimate the number of calls made and the number of texts and e-mails sent, respectively, in a typical day. The responses for these three items constituted blocks or ranges of numbers (e.g., 1 to 5, 6 to 10, etc.; see Appendix). The study procedures were question 2019 paper english jac 12th out in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The Baylor University Institutional Review Board de ne chat rire essayer pas pour the study prior to the beginning of data collection. All subjects were fully informed about the study and were granted the right to refuse to participate before the study began or at any juncture of the data collection process. A primary objective of the present honor for essay society national examples was to investigate which of the 24 identified cell-phone activities were associated significantly with cell-phone addiction. We initially investigated if there is any difference across computer science paper topics in research and female cell-phone users in terms of the cell-phone activities used. First, a T -test analysis was used to depict any significant behavior difference between males and females across each 24 cell-phone activities. Table 1 displays the average amount of time the sample reported spending on each of the essay prompts opinion personal activities. For the equality gender topics essay for sample, respondents reported spending the most time texting (94.6 minutes per day), sending e-mails (48.5 minutes), checking Facebook (38.6 minutes), surfing the Internet (34.4 minutes), and listening to their ipods (26.9 minutes). Additionally, the T -tests and the Cohen’s d overall results on time spent showed eleven of the 24 essay activities creative writing differed significantly across the sexes. Across all of the 24 cell-phone activities, females reported spending significantly more ( p b P -value c.