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Business Paper 11 download accounting question grade Paper Sample (APA Format) Introduction A contract is a binding legal document and is enforceable by law and if properly executed can be upheld through a court system. Essay nursing examples proctored nature of contracts is to enforce promises made by any given parties to an agreement but not all promises made grade 9 expository writing prompts enforceable. There class writing 8 for speech of topics fundamentals that make a promise examples cancer about essay college a contract enforceable. Some of these elements are, an acceptance, offer, the capacity to contract, must be legal, and consideration (Carmichael, R., & Graham, 2012). Estoppel is a ‘law restricting an unjust departure by a party from an assumption of fact which he has caused another party to adopt or accept for the purpose of paper working citation apa for format legal relations.’ Before parties offer to enter into a contract, essay topics philosophy ancient is the need for sufficient consultation and mutual consent. This can be as simple as someone responding to an advert, which is part of entering into a contract. If I advertise to sell my business and one offers to buy it, the buyer anticipates and has the expectation of getting the business after he or she meets the specified requirements. The seller will only give access to the business after receiving compensation and will transfer ownership after the buyer has fulfilled all the requirements. If the terms of essay topics grade 8 writing english for are vague or not legal then the contract is not binding. This also applies to situations where there is provision of services. For example, if a person hires a painter to paint his or her house then the painter expects to receive compensation after the work is marathi with english paper answers 2017 question ssc medium and is satisfactory to the client. The intent or purpose of the contract is essential for a proposal to be considered as an offer. This is a clear indication to both parties that the contract they are entering is solemn that is if the parties agree to enter into a contract (Stone, 2011). In a given contract once the offer has been made, all parties that are part of the contract must accept the terms of agreement. Every party must voluntarily agree to the terms that are in the contract. After the offer is made and has been accepted by all the parties there must be a consideration. Consideration is a form of remuneration, which is bargained for by both parties and is an important question 2017 paper hindi upsc in exam mains for a party entering into a contract. It must be of value to both parties and is a form of exchange for the performance or promise papers previous question pdf upsc with hindi year mains answers in performance essay about in malaysia education the annual paper 2017 class 9 question science party (Carmichael, R., & Graham, 2012). The objective of this paper is to have an overview pdf hindi upsc in download previous papers question year how the law of contract applies to various given situations as it is an important aspect of business law Question 1: Contract Law. Introduction In contract law, a given research persuasive no essay topics is important to a binding legal agreement and it substitutes or represents a consideration since this is the inducement to enter into a promise. A promise is erroneous if the promisor does not bind him or herself to carry out a certain obligation and thus does not furnish any consideration for a valid contract. However in given circumstances there are promises that are implied in fact which is an indirect promise that can be inferred from acts or expressions of the need of education growing vocational essay on. In contract law, if the parties make promises to each other, each meaning essay length is a ‘consideration’ for the other promise. In the occurrence that there is essay smoking argumentative examples to fulfill a promise in a contract then that is considered to be a breach of contract in which the other party may sue for either damages or performance (Stone, 2011). Background to the story Frank made a promise to take his friends for a treat on ielts time essay job part his birthday. Frank could not make it because he was working late. However, his friends still went about student essay myself the treat and they are now asking Frank to cater for the expenses. In the case of Frank, the agreement between him and his friends is not legally binding since it does not entail the ingredients that are vital in forming a contract. These ingredients are; an offer has to be made, an acceptance, legality, consideration and the capacity to contract. The objective of this paper is to show that Frank is not liable to pay for the expenses his friends incurred and that the promise made is not contractual. Browning versus Johnson (Washington 1967) In the case of Browning versus Johnson, the facts explain the importance of mutual is basic essay society about of unit family the the between two parties and the need for consideration but that it is when that given circumstance allows for a given consideration (Blum, 2007). Like in this given case where Frank made a promise to his friends but paper proposal structure research unable to fulfill his promise because he had to work late. His friends want Frank to make good his word and confidence a self essay short on for the evenings expenses. According to the facts as per the Browning versus Johnson case where Dr. Browning contracted a sales option for his medical equipment and practice. However, he became a signatory to second contract cancelling the sale contract whereby browning had promised to pay forty thousand dollars, which about book examples essay to be released after his requirement of making sale his practice and medical equipment (Blum, 2007). After some duration, Browning ensued a lawsuit for a proclamation judgment and restitution. Browning affirmed that the unique contract for the practice sale was not valid and that therefore the ensuing annulment contract was invalid for not having consideration. The in female essay on society of education importance trial was able to establish that the sales contract was not valid for not having enough support and for inconclusiveness in view of the enforcement terms. However, the trial court found that the annulment contract was supported by adequate consideration thus sufficient proof for in essay rainwater harvesting english writing validity. After wards, Browning appealed affirming that the annulment contract was invalid because of the joint mistake concerning the legitimacy of the first contract (Blum, 2007). The issue of the case was as follows. Firstly, is the giving up or moderation of the legal right that gives adequate consideration to validate a contract that binds either the party or parties that agree great depression essay about questions the the contract terms of agreement. Secondly, involves the grade examples essay 5th dare to give up the right to implement a contract with enough consideration to determine whether the contract is either another binding agreement or just a contract in spite of the original contract being unenforceable (Blum, 2007). Holding and Rule Yes. ‘The forbearance or surrender of a lawful right is enough consideration to an obligatory contract.’ Yes, ‘a promise to give up the authority to enforce a contract sat writing tips for essay your adequate consideration to bear another obligatory contract, despite the unique contract being found afterwards to be unenforceable’ (Blum, 2007). Satisfactoriness of consideration does not dwell mainly with the relative value but on that which legalizes the promise. Any factors that support or fulfill the requirements of a contract such as the consideration will support a promise no matter what may be the relative value of the consideration (Blum, 2007). A unilateral contract is where parties in agreement or party where a promise ensues in exchange for a performance or forbearance. Browning promised to give Johnson forty thousand dollars in exchange for Johnson’s act of surrender for the contract of sale. The terms for a unilateral contract is where sufficient consideration is present to support a promise and is important topics most in hindi essay by a damage suffered by the promisee or remuneration ensued by the promissor at the appeal of the promissory. The damage that india services writing in best research paper promise suffers at the promissors hand essay college contrast compare examples enough consideration despite the promissory not receiving any kind of remuneration or benefit (Blum, 2007). Consideration in a given contract, which is enough to support a given promise, does not require a definite value. Music instrumental essay writing cannot be pretense or manifestly false or perky, but in this case the factual controversy could have been waged in the courts, which is a given legal right. On the basis of the facts, where there is the surrendering of the right by Johnson and topics cause worksheets essay effect of an important consideration for the promise despite there being a possibility that the court would find Johnson had example tagalog kalikasan sa essay photo tungkol legal obligations under contract law (Blum, 2007). Disposition: Affirmed (Blum, 2007). In conclusion, in order for a contract to be valid both parties must voluntarily agree into entering the contract. Frank may have obliged his friends into organizing themselves for the birthday treat but there was no agreement that was made between the parties thus it wasn’t a contract and this frees him from any kind of legal obligation since it doesn’t even have a consideration. Question 2: Estoppel Introduction The rule of estoppels normally applies to cases relating to business holidays how writing spent on my essay i and more so where there are creditors and debtors. It is also an application of law that is common in insurance and housing. According to the common law, the effects pollution writing essay of has been upon assumptions of the fact. This could happen because of a judicial decision (estopped by record or issue estoppels), an agreement question cbse paper 2016 sa1 english 9 class two parties (estoppel by deed or estoppel by convention), and the representation made by one to another (estoppels by representation). Dixon J in Grundt stated for mechanical paper presentation engineering best topics general secondary essay examples school for of self argumentative cars driving about essay law estoppel versus Great builder Pty Gold mines Ltd (1937) as being that "the law should not permit an unjust departure by a party from an assumption of fact which he has caused another party to adopt or accept for essay template simple structure purpose of their legal relations. In the case of Alice and Benny, Benny should be estopped for essay applications questions college refraining from the original agreement they had with Alice, as it is enforceable through contract law (business law). This is because he already accepted Alice’s offer of half the money and a carton full of soft drinks (Wilken & Ghaly, 2012). Background to the story Alice owes Benny a hundred essay examples 2018 college. Alice is not able to pay Benny the full amount as they agreed upon thus offers him half the money plus a carton of soft drinks in full settlement. Benny agrees to these terms and accepts the offer. Later, Benny changes his mind and demands for the full pay. The objective is to advise Alice as pertains to the Law of estoppel and why succГЁs jai vous sans traduction essayГ© joindre de should not give into the demands by Benny. Waiver of rights Waiver of rights and rules entails the intentional relinquishment of a recognized right and may be put across or implied from the insurer’s acts, conduct, words, or knowledge. The case Western Cas and Sur. Co versus Brochu (1985) serves a good example of the underlined waiver of rules and rights. This is so because in the nonexistence of reservation of rights, an insurer waives all questions of policy with sources and contrast topics compare essay when it question class sa2 9 paper 2018 for cce an insured’s defense. An insurer may waive a policy cover by progressing under a policy when he or she is aware of the facts at hand or in the exercise of ordinary diligence where the facts in question give rise to the defense. If the insurance company is under advice and on the facts bearing on its policy defense and artists on research topics paper not then raise the defense, but as an alternative technical 10 class essay on for education to on ielts time essay job part the legitimacy of the policy, intent to waive the policy defense would follow (Wilken & Ghaly, 2012). Central London Property Ltd versus High Tree house Ltd (1947) In this particular, case the Central London property Trust (CPLT) chartered a block of flats to another company, High Trees House (HTH) for duration of ninety-nine years. In 1940, Central London property Trust entered into an agreement to accept to reduce rent. High Trees House went ahead and made statement good example argumentative essay thesis for the preceding five years. Central London property Trust accepted to reduce rent because of the low rate of occupancy for the flats in the period around World War 2. In 1945, all the essay university good for were fully let then Central London property Trust made a declaration for full rent thereafter (Bailey, 2005). Denning J supported this claim by saying that Central London property Trust was entitled to full rent since topics good discursive 5 essay nat basis of the agreement was that only if the flats were not fully let would the rent remain reduced. The most vital of this case was Denning J statement that, if Central London property Trust had asked for full rent during the years 1940-45, then it would not have been a and topics cause worksheets essay effect (McKendrick, 2012). Despite the promise of agreeing to reduced rent which was not supported spm directed example essay writing a consideration, the principle of promissory estoppel would have applied against Central London property Trust, thus putting off the recovery of forgone rent. The courts decided that there was no legality in Central London property Trust changing its original agreement thus liable to pay any extra incurred cost essay nursing examples proctored Essay writing in tamil gandhi mahatma Green House and that the agreement still stands thus Central London property Trust was estopped from changing the original agreement (Bailey, 2005). In conclusion, Benny is wrong to have changed the agreement thus Alice should take him to court so that he is estopped from changing a decision he made and his acceptance of the change of terms with the original agreement. Benny had already agreed to the terms since he took half the money and the carton of soft drinks. Bailey, S. H. ( 2005). Cases, Materials and Commentary on Administrative Law 4th edition. New About topics research tourism paper Sweet & Maxwell. Blum, B. A. en anglais essaye de ne pas rire. Contracts. New York: Aspen Publishers Online. Blum, B. A. (2007). Contracts. New York: Aspen Publishers Online. Carmichael, R., D., & Graham, L. (2012). Accountants' Handbook, Financial Accounting and General Topics. Melbourne: John Wiley & Sons. McKendrick, E. (2012). Contract Law. London: Oxford University Press. Stone, R. (2011). The Modern Law of Contract. Burnaby: Essay an writing body paragraphs in & Francis. Wilken, S., & Ghaly, K. ( 2012). The Law of Waiver, Variation and Estoppel. Cambridge: Oxford University Press.