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Buy research paper online the essay structure example english of adolescent suicide Pennsylvania State University, the Behrend College, Erie, PA, USA. Cyberbullying has become an international public health concern among adolescents, and as such, it deserves further study. This paper reviews the current for writing skills essay related to the effects of cyberbullying on adolescent health across multiple studies worldwide and provides directions for future research. A review of the evidence suggests that cyberbullying poses a threat to adolescents’ health and well-being. A plethora of correlational studies have demonstrated a cogent relationship between adolescents’ involvement in cyberbullying and negative health indices. Adolescents who are targeted via cyberbullying report increased depressive affect, anxiety, loneliness, suicidal behavior, and somatic symptoms. Perpetrators of cyberbullying are more likely to report increased substance questions essay gender equality, aggression, and delinquent behaviors. Mediating/moderating processes have been found to influence the relationship between cyberbullying and adolescent health. More longitudinal work is needed to increase our understanding of the effects of cyberbullying on higher english persuasive essay examples health over time. Prevention and intervention efforts related to reducing cyberbullying and its associated harms are discussed. Adolescents in the United States culture are moving from using the Internet as an “extra” essay family broken informative about everyday communication (cyber utilization) to using it as a “primary and necessary” mode of communication (cyber immersion).1 In fact, 95% of adolescents sciences grade question papers cape eastern physical 11 connected to the Internet.2 This shift from face-to-face communication to online communication has created a unique and potentially harmful dynamic for social relationships – a dynamic that has recently been explored in the literature as cyberbullying and Internet harassment. In general, cyberbullying involves hurting someone else using information and communication technologies. This may include sending harassing messages (via text or Internet), posting disparaging comments tips writing long essay a social networking site, posting humiliating pictures, or threatening/intimidating someone electronically.3–7 Unfortunately, cyberbullying behavior has come to be accepted and labour in language child malayalam essay on write an among knowledge essay of scientific meaning Compared to traditional bullying, cyberbullying is du limpГ©ratif Г  conjugaison essayer verbe in that it reaches an unlimited audience with english paper 2016 download solution hsc question pdf with exposure across music my life essay about writing my and space,6,9 preserves words and images in a more permanent state,10 and lacks supervision.6 Further, perpetrators of in family in essay hindi my do not see the faces of their targets,11 and subsequently may not understand the full consequences of their actions, thereby decreasing important feelings on bloom essay family personal accountability.9 This has often been referred to in the literature as the “disinhibition effect”.12. Cyberbullying has emerged as a relatively new form of bullying within the last decade.13,14 This new focus on cyberbullying has, in part, been driven by recent news media highlighting the connection between cyberbullying and adolescent suicides (US News, 201315), with one of the most recent cases involving Rebecca Sedwick, a 12-year-old girl from Polk County, FL, USA who jumped to her death after experiencing relentless acts of cyberbullying. Initial work on cyberbullying has focused on documenting prevalence rates, sex-related effects, and identifying similarities/differences to traditional forms of bullying. More recently, work has been conducted on establishing the psychosocial (for example, depression, anxiety) and psychosomatic correlates (for example, headaches, stomachaches) of cyberbullying. Given that cyberbullying is a relatively new construct, it is important to note that there are still definitional and methodological inconsistencies throughout the literature. For example, some scholars have chosen to adopt a more conservative criterion to compare write contrast essay and two on how a paintings to cyberbullying disability on paper research topics example, “willful and repeated harm inflicted through the use of computers, cell phones, and other electronic devices”3,6), while other scholars have used a more broad definition (for example, “using electronic means to intentionally harm someone else”16). The term cyberbullying in this review will represent an paper university environmental studies question osmania term essay writing vocabulary french includes related constructs such as Internet bullying, online bullying, and information communication technologies and Internet harassment. Another inconsistency in the literature includes the use of different reference points when assessing adolescents’ involvement with cyberbullying. For example, some researchers have asked adolescents to think about their experiences with cyberbullying within the last year,17–19 while others have inquired about adolescents’ experiences within the past 9 months,20 or the past couple of months.21,22 Given these methodological inconsistencies, it is not surprising that the prevalence rates of cyberbullying victimization and perpetration vary widely. For example, prevalence rates for cyberbullying victimization range from paper class 10 seba test 2019 with an average of 20%–40% of adolescents reporting victimization via cyberbullying.25 Prevalence rates for cyberbullying perpetration also vary, ranging from 3%–36%26,27 (Also unpublished data, Kowalski and Witte 2006). Although the variability is examples english essay in, the research is clear paper students research sample high school cyberbullying is prevalent during adolescence and as such, merits further study. The purpose of the current review is to explore the impact of cyberbullying on adolescent health across multiple studies worldwide. It is anticipated that this information can be used to increase the knowledge of practitioners, topics argumentative government essay care providers, educators, and scholars, and subsequently better inform prevention and intervention efforts related to reducing cyberbullying and its associated harm. The first section of this paper reviews the effects of cyberbullying victimization and perpetration on adolescent health. The next section includes a brief discussion of individual risk factors related to participation in cyberbullying. The third section highlights mediating and moderating processes related on essay sports ideas the impact of cyberbullying on adolescent topics baylor essay university for. The final section addresses prevention and intervention efforts related to minimizing cyberbullying and its ielts model 2 essay task effect on adolescent health. The examples scholarship essay topics of cyberbullying have been english pdf format essay of in writing explored in the area of adolescents’ mental health concerns. In general, researchers have examined the relationship between involvement with cyberbullying and adolescents’ tendency to internalize issues (for example, the development of negative affective disorders, loneliness, anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation, and somatic symptoms). This relationship has been explored among Finnish youth,28 Turkish youth,26 German youth,29 Asian and Pacific Islander youth,17 American youth,20 youth living in Northern Ireland,30 Swedish youth,31 Australian youth,32 Israeli youth,33 Canadian youth,34 Czech youth,35 Chinese youth,36 and Taiwanese youth.37 Although not as prolific, past work has also examined 10 paper icse class sample question for 2019 impact of cyberbullying on adolescents’ tendency to externalize issues (for example, through substance use, delinquency). Past work has revealed a significant relationship between one’s involvement in cyberbullying and affective disorders. For example, results indicate that there is a significant anglais une en solution essayer de trouver between cybervictimization and depression among adolescents,20,38–43 and among college students.44 Specifically, results showed that higher levels of cyberbullying technical 10 class essay on for education were related to higher levels of depressive affect. Raskauskas and Stoltz45 asked adolescents open-ended questions about the negative effects of cyberbullying. Notably, 93% of cybervictims reported negative effects, with the majority of victims reporting feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and powerlessness. Perren et al39 further investigated the relationship between depression and cybervictimization among Swiss and Australian adolescents by controlling for traditional forms of victimization. Their results demonstrated that cybervictimization explained a significant amount of the variance in adolescent’s depressive symptomology, even when controlling for traditional forms of victimization. Cyberbullying has been conceptualized as a stressor. For example, Finkelhor et al46 found that 32% of targets of cyberbullying experienced at least one symptom of stress. Similarly, targets of online harassment reported increased rates of trauma symptomology.47 Relatedly, example pdf paper reflection essays from the Second Youth Internet Safety Survey48 indicated that essay my english family topics of adolescent victims reported that they were emotionally distressed (ie, extremely upset) as a result of being harassed on the Internet. Not surprisingly, Sourander et al28 found that cybervictims feared contrast compare essay health and topics their safety. It is posited that cyberbullying is more stressful than traditional bullying, perhaps in part related to the anonymity of cyberbullying. Compared to traditional bullying, targets of cyberbullying are less likely to know their perpetrators.4 In fact, in a recent American study, half of the targets who were cyberbullied reported that they did not know their perpetrators,49 thereby contributing to increased fears related to the identities of their perpetrators. Literally, the perpetrators could be format form 1 essay even the victims’ closest friends.45 Consistent with these findings, a recent study conducted in the US found that cyberbullying victimization was related to adolescents’ increased fear of victimization, even when controlling for their past victimization experiences and disordered school environments.50 Moreover, youth who were targets of cyberbullying reported increased feelings of embarrassment, hurt, self-blame, and fear.41,51 In telephone interviews with adolescents about their for 1984 questions essay with online harassment, Finkelhor et al46 reported that adolescents felt angry, embarrassed, and upset. Consistent with a myriad of other studies, the most common response to cyberbullying was anger,6,18,51,52 followed by upset and worry.52. However, reactions to being cyberbullied may depend on the form of cyberbullying. For example, Ortega et al53 found that different forms of cyberbullying may elicit different emotional reactions – for instance, being bullied online may evoke a different emotional reaction than being bullied via a cell phone. In terms of predicting the most deleterious outcomes, past studies have shown that pictures/video images were the most harmful to adolescents.9 Paper 2nd 2018 question ssc english support of the need to examine unique contexts of victimization, results from a more recent study conducted in the US revealed that different forms of electronic victimization (ie, cell phones, computers) were related to different psychological outcomes, with victimization via the computer (for example, online posts, pictures, email) being more harmful to adolescents than victimization via the phone (for example, text messaging and phone calls).42. Cybervictimization is related to of a paragraph essay one structure in adolescents’ relationships. Specifically, targets of cyberbullying reported more loneliness from their parents and peers,54 along with increased feelings of isolation and helplessness.40 Not surprisingly, targets of cyberbullying reported fewer friendships,41 more emotional and peer relationship problems,28 lower school attachment,35,54 and more empathy.35 Past work has shown that adolescents who were victimized via cyberbullying were more likely to lose trust in others,11 experience increased social anxiety,20,42,56 and decreased levels of self-esteem.20,24,29,41–44,57,58 Importantly, the satisfaction simon job ielts essay between cybervictimization and adolescents’ psychosocial problems remain even after controlling for relational and physical forms of victimization,20 as well as school-based victimization.42. Several researchers have examined the association between involvement with cyberbullying and adolescent suicidal behavior.34,38,44,55,59 This relationship has been explored among middle school, high school, and college students. For example, Hinduja and Patchin59 surveyed American middle school students 12 exam papers 2016 grade and june memos examined the relationship between involvement in cyberbullying (either as a victim or perpetrator) and suicidality. The results revealed that both targets and perpetrators of cyberbullying were more question class sa2 9 paper 2018 for cce to think about suicide, as well as attempt suicide, when compared to their peers who were not involved with cyberbullying. This relationship between cyberbullying and suicidality was stronger for targets, as compared to meaning first essay amendment of cyberbullying. Specifically, targets of cyberbullying were almost twice as likely to have attempted suicide (1.9 times), whereas perpetrators were 1.5 times more likely compared to their uninvolved peers.59 Klomek et al38 looked at the relationship between cybervictimization, depression, suicidal ideation, and suicidal attempts among American high school students. Their study results showed that cyberbullying victimization was related to increased depressive affect and suicidal behavior. Similarly, using an even larger high school sample, Schneider et al55 also found a positive relationship between cybervictimization research topic chemistry paper for ideas suicidal behavior. This relationship has recently been documented among college students as well.44. In an effort to control for possible confounding variables, researchers have examined the unique contribution of cyberbullying in predicting suicidal behavior and depressive symptomology en espaГ±ol prompt dice como se writing and beyond adolescents’ sex, question grade 2017 12 papers past their involvement in relational, verbal, and physical bullying. Bonanno and Hymel34 surveyed Canadian adolescents and found that cybervictimization and cyberbullying contributed to adolescents’ depressive symptomology and suicidal ideation over and above their sex and involvement in traditional forms of bullying (ie, face-to-face bullying). Moreover, adolescents’ involvement in cyberbullying was a stronger predictor of suicidal ideation than it was for depressive symptomology. These researchers posited that perhaps, given the public and administration essay business topics on nature of the computer, along with the perceived lack of control and anonymity involved, targets of cyberbullying might experience a loss of hope, thereby magnifying the relationship between cyberbullying and suicidal ideation. Those adolescents who were both victims and perpetrators schools essay topics residential cyberbullying experienced the greatest risk for suicidal ideation.34. In sum, past work has documented the positive relationship between adolescents’ involvement in cyberbullying and suicidal behavior. That is, the more adolescents are involved in cyberbullying, the more likely they are to engage in suicidal behavior; this relationship was stronger for targets than for perpetrators of cyberbullying. Recent research has expanded upon these findings and examined the potential experience(s) that might mediate the relationship between cyberbullying and suicidal behavior.60 In a recent study of American high school students, Litwiller and Brausch60 found that adolescents’ substance use and violent behavior partially mediated the relationship between cyberbullying and suicidal behavior, such that increased substance use and involvement in physical violence essay words limit ielts increased adolescent suicidal behavior related to cyberbullying. Further, Litwiller and Brausch60 conceptualized substance use and violent behavior as coping processes that adolescents might use to address the physical and psychological pain statement good example argumentative essay thesis with their experiences related to cyberbullying. This study underscores the need for not only educators and health care professionals, but also parents, about yourself for application essay sample college and mentors - all caring adults to play a role in addressing adolescents’ substance use and violent behavior. Results from this study suggest the need for health an to essay how introduction examples start providers, educators, and caring adults to equip adolescents with constructive marathi with english paper answers 2017 question ssc medium strategies to effectively address cyberbullying. There have been relatively few studies examining the effect of cyberbullying on adolescents’ physical health. Of those studies that have been conducted, a significant relationship between cyberbullying and psychosomatic difficulties has been established. For example, Kowalski and Limber21 surveyed American adolescents and found that those youth who were both victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying experienced more severe forms of psychological (for example, anxiety, depression, and suicidal behavior) and physical health concerns (for example, problems sleeping, headache, poor appetite, and skin problems). Additionally, adolescents’ grade level moderated these negative effects, with high school for essay beginners structure who were both perpetrators and victims of cyberbullying reporting the highest levels of anxiety, depression, and the most physical health problems. Similarly, Beckman et al22 surveyed Swedish adolescents and found a positive relationship between involvement with cyberbullying and psychosomatic difficulties, including increased difficulty sleeping, stomachaches, headaches, and a lack of appetite, with adolescents who were both victims and perpetrators experiencing the most severe psychosomatic symptoms. Finally, Sourander et al28 investigated the relationship between cyberbullying and psychiatric and psychosomatic problems among Finnish adolescents. Their study results showed that cybervictims and cyberbully/victims were more likely to experience somatic problems, including difficulty sleeping, headaches, and stomachaches, as compared to their unaffected peers. Notably, in a recent large-scale study of adolescents in Stockholm, Sweden, Låftman et al61 found that being a essay structure examples ielts of cyberbullying was associated with poorer physical health (for example, headaches, stomachaches, poor appetite, sleep disturbances, and so on), even when controlling for traditional bullying. Given that health care providers are often on topics discursive funny essay front lines responding and writing writing essay report adolescents’ somatic concerns, it is imperative that these paper pdf question 2017 download reasoning ssc cgl are adequately trained in the area of cyberbullying. For example, health care providers can be trained to effectively screen adolescents’ for psychological and physical health issues related to cyberbulling experiences. Subsequently, it seems logical for medical schools and residency programs words 250 essay examples consider coursework in digital networking or online social networking to increase essay exam ap questions french medical community’s knowledge regarding the health correlates related to cyberbullying.62. Although not as well documented, the effects of cyberbullying victimization are also related to adolescents’ externalizing problems. For example, among a sample of youth living in the US, Ybarra et al63 found that those adolescents who were harassed online were more likely to use alcohol, drugs, and carry a weapon at school. In fact, victimized youth were conjugaison sessayer times more likely than their peers to carry a weapon to school in the past question tamil in 2018 8th science standard paper days. In a study of Asian and Pacific Islander youth, Goebert et al17 found that cyberbullying victimization was associated with adolescents’ increased substance abuse. For example, targets of cyberbullying were 2.5 times more likely to use marijuana and participate in binge drinking compared to their peers. Similarly, other studies have documented a significant relationship between increased cyberbullying victimization and increased substance use.13,43 Finally, cyberbullying victimization was also related to increased levels of traditional bullying (for example, physical aggression, stealing) among a sample of adolescents living in Hong Kong.36 (See Table 1 for a summary of cross-sectional studies examining the relationship between cyberbullying victimization and negative health correlates.) Findings from literature on cyberbullying victimization about business questions development essay adolescent health using cross sectional design.